In perfect shape or not, we decide for ourselves

The perception of obesity has seen extraordinary changes in the historical development of humanity. In the Middle Ages, it was seen as an expression of high social status, and later as a rare aesthetic problem. Nowadays, however, because of the health risks it poses and the continuous increase in its frequency, it is defined as one of the most serious metabolic disorders. Here’s what you need to know about it.

What is obesity?

Obesity can be defined as an increase in body weight expressed in abnormal deposition of triglycerides in fat depots with a marked negative effect on the body. Since accurate measurement of the amount of fat tissue in the body requires expensive and difficult to obtain tests, a single method of determining the degree of obesity, the so-called body mass index (BMI), has been introduced into health care practice. Described in 1896 by A. Quételet, BMI is the ratio of body weight in kilograms to height in metres squared (BMI = kg/m2).

In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a standard to classify body weight according to BMI (Table 1) (1). However, this index does not provide any information on the amount of fat tissue and, more importantly, where it is located in the body. The regional distribution of adipose tissue is an extremely important aspect of obesity, determining the frequency and seriousness of coexisting or co-occurring diseases. The accumulation of adipose tissue in the abdominal region, known as android fat distribution (central, male-type) obesity, is associated with a significantly increased health risk compared with gynoid (pear-shaped, female-type) obesity. For this reason, BMI determination is most often accompanied by a waist circumference measurement. A BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 combined with a waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women has been shown to dramatically increase the likelihood of developing complications such as: hypertension, dyslipidaemia (abnormal blood lipid profile), atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke and heart attack. (2)

Category                                                        BMI

Low body weight                                   ≤ 18.5 kg/m2

Optimal body weight                            18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2

Overweight                                            25 – 29.9 kg/m2

Grade I obesity                                      30 – 34.9 kg/m2

Grade II obesity                                     35 – 39.9 kg/m2

Morbid obesity grade III                         ≥ 40 kg/m2

Distribution

The rate of obesity is rising at an extremely fast pace worldwide, reaching epidemiological proportions. According to official statistics, 270 million of the world’s population are currently diagnosed as obese and 1.2 billion as overweight, with the trend being for these figures to reach 750 million and 2.5 billion respectively by 2024. Even more alarming are the facts that the number of obese children under 5 years of age exceeds 5 million and that the prevalence of morbid obesity grade III (≥ 40 kg/m2) has increased about 6-fold in the last decade (3).

Across Europe, overweight affects about 50% and obesity about 20% of the population, with Central and Eastern Europe among the most affected regions. (4)

The country with the highest prevalence of obesity in the population is the Micronesian Republic of Nauru – 85% in men and 93% in women.

What causes obesity to develop

Obesity is a metabolic disorder of a chronic nature, the result of complex interactions between endogenous (genetic features, hormonal balance) factors and the external environment. The main reason for its development is the prolonged maintenance of a positive energy balance due to increased energy intake, decreased energy expenditure or a combination of both. Since the main source of energy for the human body are nutrients, and energy expenditure is primarily associated with physical activity, let us consider these factors more closely.

Nutrition in the etiology of obesity

If until a few decades ago there were doubts about the importance of nutrition in the cause of obesity, today it has been proven without a doubt that dietary intake is central. Tracking dietary habits shows that energy intake has increased dramatically over the last 30-40 years, with a trend to continue increasing in the future. In addition, this quantitative change has been accompanied by qualitative changes in diet. Fat intake has increased dramatically, with beneficial mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids giving way to atherogenic saturated fatty acids. At the same time, there has been a ‘spike’ in the intake of simple sugars, while the consumption of complex carbohydrates and fiber has declined (5). Foods rich in fat and simple carbohydrates are preferred for consumption because of their better palatability. At the same time, they have a low satiety effect and increased energy density (calories per unit weight), factors that easily induce a positive energy balance and consequently obesity.

The importance of physical activity

The constant economic growth, the rapid pace of industrialization and urbanization have minimized the need to perform activities requiring physical effort. If our ancestors were paid to perform physical work, we must pay to go to modern gyms and sport facilities, and exercise. Movement is a must for maintaining the normal structure and function of almost all the systems and organs in our body and it is logical that its absence causes pathological changes in them.

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary lifestyle is associated with an increased frequency of metabolic disorders and in particular overweight and obesity. Interestingly, the relationship between reduced physical activity and obesity is bidirectional, i.e., lack of exercise leads to weight gain and overweight people are less likely to be encouraged to take up physical activity. Thus, the accumulation of excessive weight is exacerbated and leads to the formation of a vicious cycle.

The question of whether increased energy intake or reduced physical activity is the root cause of the observed spike in the prevalence of obesity today remains unanswered. Overeating is thought to have a greater impact because it is easier to induce a positive energy balance than to compensate with physical activity.

However, as I already mentioned, obesity is a consequence of complex interactions between internal and external factors. Let’s pay some attention to the former.

 Is obesity a genetic inheritance?

Although obesity undoubtedly has a genetic component, the exact mechanisms behind it are not fully understood. Genetic influences are difficult to differentiate because in a very large number of cases the genotype is influenced by external, non-genetic factors. There are cases in which certain families and even ethnic groups are significantly more prone to obesity, but it is difficult to say that it is 100% inherited because these groups of people have identical eating and exercise habits.

Studies conducted among large groups of people with wide variations in BMI and amount of fat tissue, as well as among identical twins, show that 40 to 70% of individual differences are genetically determined. Genetic factors have also been found to influence mainly energy intake and to a lesser extent energy expenditure and nutrient absorption. At present, despite scientific progress, it is difficult to say with certainty whether obesity is genetically linked. (6)

The importance of certain hormones

In 1994 it was established that fat tissue is its own endocrine organ. The isolation of the hormone leptin (from the Greek leptos – weak) gave extraordinary hopes for the discovery of a medicine against obesity and caused a large number of scientists to start searching for other similar peptides.

Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by fat tissue, and its circulating levels are proportional to its amount. Leptin acts on specialized receptors located in the hypothalamus and signals that the body has taken in enough food. So far, one mutation in the gene responsible for leptin production is known. Individuals suffering from this mutation have low circulating leptin levels, experience a continuous need for food intake and develop morbid obesity. External administration of leptin in these individuals has an extremely beneficial effect. Significantly more often, however, severely obese patients possess high serum leptin levels and a simultaneously severely increased appetite. In these cases, leptin resistance is involved and replacement therapy has no effect (7).

Ghrelin is a hormone secreted in the gastrointestinal tract, possessing an action antagonistic to that of leptin, i.e. it has been defined as a hunger hormone. Its levels are high when feeling hungry and before food intake and drop immediately after feeding. The action of ghrelin has been used to develop a vaccine against obesity that prevents it from reaching receptors in the central nervous system and signaling feelings of hunger (7).

Peptide YY (PYY) is another hormone relevant to appetite. Produced in various parts of the small and large intestine after feeding, it slows gastric emptying, thereby improving digestion and nutrient absorption and increasing feelings of satiety. People suffering from obesity have lower levels of PYY. Intake of protein-rich foods or beverages has been found to increase PYY secretion and prolong the feeling of satiety (7).

Adiponectin is another hormone produced in adipose tissue with potential influence on the development of obesity. Although its role has not been fully investigated, it has been proven that obese patients have low levels of adiponectin and vice versa – after lowering body weight, adiponectin concentration increases. Experiments conducted on laboratory mice showed weight loss after external administration of adiponectin. However, many more questions need to be answered before human trials can be conducted (7).

Why obesity is such a significant disease?

The social significance of obesity is determined not only by the threatening proportions it reaches in the world population, but also by the health risks it poses. The link between overweight, obesity and premature mortality is undeniable. Furthermore, obesity is a leading aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of a huge number of diseases that affect the world’s economically active population and lead to disability and loss of work capacity. According to official data, about 7% of total health expenditure in some developed countries is devoted to treating the effects of obesity. In reality, this figure may be many times higher because many of the diseases indirectly related to obesity are probably not included in the calculations (4). Here are some of the most common diseases caused by obesity, together with the

Significantly increased risk

(risk > 3 times)

 

Moderately increased risk

(risk > 2 times)

Slightly increased risk

(risk > 1 time)

 

Arterial hypertension

 

Cardiovascular disease

 

Cancer

 

Dyslipidaemia

                      

Osteoarthritis

 

Back pain

 

Insulin resistance

 

Gout

 

Malformations

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

Asthma   

 

 

 

Sleep apnea

 

 

Cholelithiasis

 

 

degree of risk it poses for their development: (8)

Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder with extremely serious health consequences, the prevalence of which reaches epidemiological proportions nowadays. Although to a certain extent its development is genetically determined, behavioral factors, in particular eating habits and physical activity, play a major role in its etiology. Therefore, whether we are overweight or obese depends primarily on ourselves; anything else is just excuses.

 

Sources:

  • Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2000;894: i-xii, 1-253
  • Oppert JM, Charles MA, Thibult N, Guy-Grand B, Eschwege E, Ducimetiere P. Anthropometric estimates of muscle and fat mass in relation to cardiac and cancer mortality in men: the Paris Prospective Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jun;75(6):1107-13
  • Fry J, Finley W. The prevalence and costs of obesity in the EU. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 Aug;64(3):359-62
  • int
  • Drewnowski A. Nutrition transition and global dietary trends. Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug;16(7-8):486-7
  • Blakemore AI, Froguel P. Is obesity our genetic legacy? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov;93(11 Suppl 1): S51-6
  • Astrup A. Healthy lifestyles in Europe: prevention of obesity and type II diabetes by diet and physical activity. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):499-515

 

What is tea for fitness? 

When we exercise intensively, such as in the gym or while jogging or running, our body has an extra need for many vitamins and trace elements. The most popular drinks to accompany sports are: water, isotonic sports drinks or tea for fitness. Tea for Fitness, or Finnish tea, is a perfect sports drink when you want to compensate for the loss of minerals and trace elements after exercise. 

Tea for fitness sounds very hip and trendy. But it is nothing new. Tea and fitness – both for their natural and healthy properties – have long gone hand in hand. 

Tea for finesse, tea for sporty men

One reason for the increase in performance in sport is caffeine in green tea, as well as matcha tea and mate tea. Tea for fitness is a mug full of ingredients that increases physical activity and thus performance. Pirate Tea is a performance drink combining 22 herbs from 6 continents that vitalize your mind and body naturally with delicious orange peppermint flavor! It contains no preservatives or artificial substances. Pirate Tea ingredients boost your testosterone to natural levels and enhance your cognitive functions. Some of the ingredients in our fitness teas: 

Tribulus terrestirtis: improves libido in women and men, Tribulus terrestris promotes the production of gains in strength and lean muscle mass.

Ironwort (sideritis) aka Mursalski chai: Health benefits, according to the latest scientific research, include improved digestion, immune system support, and enhanced sexual vitality.

Yerba mate (illex paraguariensis): Yerba suppress appetite and burn fat.

Catuaba: used to cure anxiety, depression and lack of energy and focus.

Damiana (Turnera Diffusa): helps your body adjust to physical, biological and chemical stress.

Gingko Biloba: Research shows the positive effects of Gingko on memory, stress relief and visual acuity.

Ginger: reduces nausea and ease digestion also in larger quantities taking daily it can increase testosterone.

Goji Berry (Lycium barabarum): helps to feel calm, improve athletic performance and boost our immune system.

Mace (Myristica): relieves pain and improve digestion and strengthen the cognitive function.

Golden root (Rhodiola rosea): reducing fatigue and exhaustion in prolonged stressful activities.

Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): increases mental alertness, and physical performance and is a great addition to you diet for overall quality of life.

Tea for fitness stimulates the metabolism

Fitness tea is also suitable for healthy weight loss, as it stimulates the metabolism and thus burns calories, reduces the desire for sweets, curbs the appetite, flushes out toxins and at the same time contributes to a balanced diet.

Make your own tea for fitness using our specially selected blends. This has the advantage that you can easily adapt your sports drinks to your personal needs.

 

Pirate Tea

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A real man drinks Pirate Tea

Better performance with fitness tea

During sports, large amounts of body fluids can be lost through breathing and sweating. A sufficient supply of water is therefore very important during and after exercise to compensate for fluid loss.

Pirate Tea offers the advantages of coffee or sports drinks, but without their disadvantages. Many sports doctors therefore recommend fitness teas. They see it as a great way to maintain fluid balance, and fitness tea is great for athletes who don’t like to bottle up with tasteless water. Fitness tea contains less sugar and caffeine than energy drinks, so it provides the benefits while avoiding the side effects of a discouraging, delayed crash. Adequate fluid intake is very important during and after exercise to compensate for fluid loss. The effect of fitness tea lasts longer and not only provides adequate hydration but also helps to keep it that way.

Pirate Tea is also perfect for healthy weight loss, as it contains almost no calories. Teas such as green tea, matcha tea and mate tea contain ingredients that support healthy weight loss, as they effectively stimulate fat burning and slow down the bitter substances in them. If you choose the type of tea to lose weight smartly, fitness tea helps to burn fat and most importantly, maintain your healthy diet. One of the most important tips for healthy weight loss with Pirate Tea is to drink as much of it as possible. Unfortunately, without a healthy diet and exercise, fitness tea is pretty much on its own and can therefore achieve very little. Healthy food and exercise are also necessary to lose extra kilos. Pirate Tea is an excellent addition to a balanced diet and an active lifestyle.

 

Your perfect shot of fitness tea

Pirate Tea consists of a carefully formulated blend that is specifically tailored to support the active male body. The ingredients in Pirate Fitness tea have both stimulating and restorative powers. While regular supplements and protein drinks used within the fitness world are known to have fewer positive effects, drinking fitness tea counteracts inflammation and the ingredients help to reduce fluid retention in the body. Pirate Tea Fitness is a natural source of energy and nutrition. Pirate Tea – Tea for Fitness is ideal for men who have a significant gym routine and want to maximize their strength, gains and overall results.